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    Gothic novelty and uncanny domesticity in Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre (1848) and Villette (1853)

     
    par Sihem Menasria
     

    As part of the Romantic rejection of rationality and return to the medieval and barbarian, Gothic literature emerged by the late eighteenth century as a genre which puts forward terrifying, supernatural experiences and romantic plots. By the mid-nineteenth century, this literary genre witnessed a great change as it associated itself with sensational fiction. This fusion resulted in a domestication of the Gothic as it adopted, like sensational literature, more familiar settings, plots and characters which the reader could easily identify in his/her real world. Charlotte Brontë is undoubtedly one of those Victorian writers whose novels Jane Eyre (1848) and Villette (1853) demonstrate best a new 'wrought' and elaborated Gothic and a transformation of the domestic world into a place of fear and unease.

     

    The purpose of this present research entitled "Gothic novelty and uncanny domesticity in Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre (1848) and Villette (1853)", is to bring light to the various ways in which Charlotte Brontë makes use and sometimes transgresses Gothic clichés and generic conventions as well as highlight her creation of a new form of Gothicism through her mixing of high literary mode (i.e: realism) and popular ones (i.e: Gothic and sensational) in her process of domesticating the Gothic.

    In other words, this research tries to explore the multiple new facets that Brontë brings to the Gothic genre through her choice of turning the 'home' to an 'uncanny' space. This research will demonstrate how Charlotte Brontë realized that the literary writing process was not conflictual between , the so often regarded as, opposing camps of literary style (i.e: Realism v.s Gothic and supernatural) but rather a constant conversation and negotiation between generic conventions and innovations. Thus, the research's ultimate purpose is to bring light to the ways in which Charlotte Brontë domesticates the Gothic and Gothicize the domestic.

     

    The first part of my research will explore how the Gothic novel came to a sort of fusion with the sensational fiction and how the two techniques of 'Gothicizing the domestic' and 'domesticating the Gothic' came to be adopted by many novelists of the second half of the nineteenth century as Charles Dickens and how Charlotte Brontë's works successfully illustrate these transformations. This will help us understand better the evolution and context in which the Gothic was subjected to various mutations which affected its generic conventions first established in Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto (1764) and the realistic touch that the Gothic had won through its association with popular literary styles such as domestic and sensational fiction. This part of the research is of eminent importance; as it will not only put us in the context of an important phase in the history of the Gothic fiction (i.e: the domestication of the Gothic) but also clear up the various influences which favored the appearance of such a mutation within the genre.

     

    The nineteenth century in literature was always referred to as the fin-de siècle or the age of decadence by sever critics who favored realist, rational and moralist styles of writing. The decadent writers were generally writers of Gothic, sensational and romantic works of fiction. Very rare indeed are the writers who could reconcile the latter modes of writing with the realist demands and exigency of the critics as Charlotte Brontë successfully did in her novels. Some rigid critics qualified horror literatures as “terrorist” fiction as did an anonymous critic humorously prescribe a formula of this style of writing in “Terrorist Novel Writing” in 1798 which advices the writer to follow this “recipe”:

     

    Take__ An Old castle, half of it ruinous

    A long gallery, with a great many doors, some secret ones.

    Three murdered bodies, quite fresh.

    As many skeletons, in chest and presses

    An old woman hanging by the neck; with her throat cut.

    Assassins and desperadoes, quant.suff.

    Noises, whispers, and groans, threescore at least.

    Mix them together, in the form of three volumes, to be taken at any of the watering places, before going to bed.[1]

     

    The abandon of such mystic and extravagant gothic generic conventions is obvious during the mid-nineteenth century in order to fit the standards of the period. This phase of mutation of the Gothic we are interested in is sometimes referred to by critics as the process of ‘the domestication of the Gothic’ which some have explained by the fusion of the Gothic with the sensational fiction which was to appear in the second half of the nineteenth century. Though critics rarely dealt with this concept of domesticated Gothic, we find an interesting definition of the process of the ‘domestication of the Gothic’ which fits the case of Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre and Villette given by Henry James in his review essay to Wilkie Collins’s The woman in White (1860) with whom sensational fiction is said to have begun:

     

    To Mr. Collins belongs the credit of having introduced into fiction those most mysterious of mysteries, the mysteries which are at our own doors. This innovation gave, a new impetus to the literature of horrors. It was fatal to the authority of Mrs. Radcliffe and her everlasting castle in the Apennines.What are the Apennines to us, or we to the Apennines? Instead, of horrors of “Udolpho”, we were treated to the terrors of the cheerful country-house and the busy lodgings. And there is no doubt that these were infinitely the more terrible.[2]

     

    No where we could find such an innovation so artfully illustrated as in Brontë’s Jane Eyre and Villette. If Mr. Collins is said to have initiated the sensational fiction, I will rather gently discredit him by saying that Charlotte Bronte previously anticipated this innovation some years before with a much more wrought Gothic Realism which delicately avoids falling into excess and pathos.

     

    Fred Botting in his study of the evolution of the Gothic genre notices that the period of the mid-nineteenth century witnessed ‘a significant diffusion of gothic traces throughout literary and popular fiction within the forms of realism, sensation novels and ghost stories’[3] which put in advance ‘homely’ terrors. As a result, gothic mutations discredited the genre from some of its exotic and extravagant aspects. Far were gone the surrealist castles of Walpole and the monstrous villains of Mary Shelley. The flirtation of the gothic with popular literary forms as sensational fiction and ghost stories resulted in a ‘new’ Gothic which affected the traditional Gothic with its exotic and mystic elements. Some gothic generic conventions were radically changed: the aristocratic castles transformed into domestic spaces providing an atmosphere of unease and horror, the villains epitomes of evil metamorphosed into corrupted humans or hero-villains, prisons and convents and other traditional gothic sites of suffering and brutality became simple domestic rooms which symbolized transgressed social boundaries and injustice.

     

    It is true that the Gothic generic conventions were subjected to various transformations in this process of domestication, however it seems essential to look deeper into the roots of domesticity in fiction to reach a better understanding of this phase in the history of Gothic fiction. Nancy Armstrong in her Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel (1987) traces back the appearance of the domestic fiction to 1848. Armstrong notices that this kind of fiction exploits the ‘household’ and other domestic aspects in order to restore the transgressed boundaries which unrestricted desire had caused. Therefore, most of the literature written during the second half of the nineteenth century was marked by this process of domestication. But what is more interesting in Armstrong’s study is that she sees that the domestication was not the only way to solve such problems engendered by uncontrolled desire but the recurrent use of representations of madness, obsessions and ‘violent scenes of punishment and exclusion’[4] all together with fantastic elements within the household, is another technique typical to the domestic fiction. This may but reveal to us the co-existence of the contradictory natures of both techniques used within some works of fiction of the period (i.e: the realistic aspect conveyed by the process of domestication v.s the supernatural and fantastic ones put forward by the diffusion of gothic elements as unusual events, enclosures and punishments).

     

    Though Armstrong’s analysis has an evident feminist alienation as she explores the feminizing role of domesticity, her mapping of the historical process undergone by the domestic novel helped me realize the reciprocal nature of the relation between the domestic fiction and the Gothic genre or more precisely realistic and fantastic.

    Hence my concern with what may at the first glimpse seem as contradictory processes of ‘Gothicizing the domestic’ and ‘domestication the Gothic’ through displaying a mutual and inseparable relation.

     

    Another type of fiction which played an undeniable role in the ‘domestication of the Gothic’ is the sensational fiction. I have stated previously that my observations of the elements often attributed to the sensational fiction led me to conclude that Charlotte Brontë anticipated Wilkie Collins, the assumed forefather of the sensational, by her re-writing of the Gothic. Maureen Moran in Catholic Sensationalism and Victorian Literature (2007) explains the transformations that the Gothic was subjected to after the appearance of sensational fiction:

     

    The domestication of such Gothic Clichés as oppressive labyrinthine spaces, exotic Continetal locations, murderous assassins, and intricate, impenetrable plots also creates new meanings. Dark, claustrophobic enclosures- the monastic dungeon and the prison- are transformed into familiar, protective institutions of British culture[5].

     

    Consequently we notice that sensational fiction aimed to offer a terrifying perception of the ‘home’ through transgressing and domesticating gothic traditional elements by ‘shak[ing] belief in the security of the ‘home’’[6]. These sensational elements and many others are all present in Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre and Villette which are marked by a transformation of the “home” and other ‘protective institutions’ into dangerous asylums. Lowood School and the Reed House in Jane Eyre are spaces for usual scenes of punishment and imprisonment which give birth to claustrophobic fears and ghostly apparitions experienced by Jane. Similarly, in Villette, Lucy Snowe experiences unease and cloister in Madame Beck’s school, a former convent, which inhabits the ghost of a nun.

     

    Diane Long Hoeveler’s Gothic Feminism: The Professionalization of Gender from Charlotte Smith to the Brontës (1998) explores how the female, both as author and gothic heroine, redefines the concept of family in a patriarchal society which considered the familial cocoon as ‘the only sure and certain reality in a perilously shifting world of values’[7]. Thus, I came to assume that among those writers of the Gothic during the age of decadence, Charlotte Brontë is the one who artfully redefines both the Gothic as a genre and reshapes the notion of domesticity through cultivating an ‘uncanny’ and doubtful perception of it. In fact, Brontë in her re-writing of the Gothic through domesticating it; is not discrediting the Gothic from its capacity of terrorizing; on the contrary this confirms it by her invention of a Gothic realism which lets a brooding uncertainty about the supernatural and doubts about domesticity. This made me realize how the domestication of the Gothic optimizes the creation of a unique sensation of uncanniness and terror.

     

    Canon Schmitt, for his part, in his essay “The Gothic Romance in The Victorian Period” (2002) traces the history of the Gothic novel stating the various shapes it had embodied during the Victorian era, it informs us that ‘in the middle of the nineteenth century, the Gothic is brought home to England, as in Dickens’s Gothic London or sensational fiction’s domestic terrors’[8].. Therefore, we notice that the Gothic did no longer take place in the Italian castles and other exotic spaces like those of Walpole but rather in the most familiar homes and landscapes with which the reader is much more familiar with. However, I noticed that the domestication of the Gothic does not only affect the geographic settings but it also affects characters as we are no longer confronted to villains or demoniac evil inventions as Shelley’s Frankenstein, but rather to corrupted evil humans or hero-villains which demonstrate a better elaborateness in the psychology of the Gothic double . These characters illustrated a disturbing complexity of the psychology of the double. This complexity is often accompanied with a tragic uncertainty concerning the inexplicable events. Emily Dickinson’s lines of poetry “One need not be a chamber to be haunted / One need not be a house; / The brain has corridors surpassing/ Material place.” might well illustrate Brontë’s domestication of traditional characters. In fact, Brontë’s heroines’ minds are occasionally haunted by their doubles: Bertha, often seen as Jane’s double, embodying the heroine’s fear, anger and sexual desire or the nun’s ghost in Villette, symbol of past transgressed boundaries, who mysteriously disappears after the burial of the letters ,significant of Lucy’s burring a part of her identity seen as evil. Thus, the incorporation of uncertainty on the nature of these ghostly apparitions provides a more frightening sensation, a sensation transmitted to us through the heroines’ puzzled minds who sometimes mock such romantic lapses.

     

    In my quest for Gothic elements in the novels of Charlotte Bronte, I noticed that feminist critics contributed widely in throwing light to the different aspects of the Gothic in Brontë’s novels. Cannon Schmitt in “The Gothic Romance in the Victorian Period” associates the use of Gothicism in Jane Eyre and Villette with the issue of foreignness which highlights Brontë’s xenophobia as she ‘deploys a Gothic demonization of the foreign’.

    Diane Long Hoeveler in Gothic Feminism: The Professionalization of Gender from Charlotte Smith to the Brontes (1998) considers that Charlotte Brontë, at the demand of a ‘newly emerging bourgeois class of women’[9], redefines gothic feminism by imagining a world in which the civilizing process’ undergone by her new ‘feminine’ middle-class heroines could triumph over the aristocratic women and patriarchal institution.

     

    Susan Wolstenholme in Gothic (re)visions: Writing Women as Readers (1993) associates the ghostly apparitions and other gothic elements in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre and Villette to nineteenth century gender issues as ‘women’s silence and self-effacement’[10].But one of the eminent feminist critical works is undoubtedly The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination (2000) in which Gubar and Gilbert explore the social issue of “la cage à folle” in works of Charlotte Brontë and other forms of enclosure of the nineteenth century in which women were incarcerated by oppressive patriarchal forces.

    From this wide range of criticism the novels of Brontë have receive, it becomes clear that feminist critics tend to read gothic elements as marks of patriarchal repression and domestic imprisoning which did not satisfy my enthusiastic interest in Gothic fiction. This is what has motivated me to look deeply in the new techniques Brontë uses to produce a narrative which artfully reconciles tradition and innovation, realism and fantastic, wildness and domesticity. However, almost all feminist critics implicitly explore a Freudian theory that I will adopt in my research, that of the ‘uncanny’.

     

    Freud's theory of the ‘uncanny’[11] is one of the most influential psycho-analytic studies in Gothic literature. In fact, Freud's study offers a structure which explores how a familiar situation which is not usually considered as frightening, can raise in us a feeling of uncanniness. In his essay "The uncanny"(1919), Freud defines the uncanny as 'related to what is frightening –to what arouses dread and horror'[12]. But an etymological study of the German word ‘unheimlich’-equivalent of ‘uncanny’- undergone by Freud would be revolutionary in the field of horror literature. Freud had previously declared that the unheimlich means unfamiliar. However, Freud notices that ‘unheimlich’ happens to be the opposite but also a sub-kind of ‘heimlich’ or ‘homely’. Thus Freud adds the ‘heimlich’ (homely) as a sub-category of the ‘uncanny’ and, implicitly, of the Gothic genre at large as he aims to discover the various ways in which ‘the familiar can become uncanny and frightening’.

     

    My aim in adopting Freud's view of the ‘uncanny’ is to demonstrate how these ‘homely’ connections with the ‘unheimlich’ are in narrow relation with the fusion of the Gothic literature with other literary modes of writing (i.e: sensational and realistic) in Brontë's Jane Eyre and Villette and at the same time justify her choice of domesticating the Gothic. In his study of ghost tales and horror literary texts, Freud notices that those techniques used by writers to raise in us ‘uncanny’ sensations are both in close connection to the real world and surpassing it sometimes. For Freud, the uncanny feeling ‘cannot rise unless there is a conflict of judgment’[13] between what is real and what we agreed to be not:

     

    …an uncanny effect is often and easily produced when the distinction between imagination and reality is effaced, as when something that we have hitherto regarded as imaginary appears before us in reality[14].

     

    According to Freud uncanny experiences find their origins in repressed infantile complexes which ‘civilized people’ just ‘surmount’ as he says ‘the uncanny proceeds from something familiar which has been repressed’[15]. Therefore these complexes and beliefs are still existent and create a ‘conflict of judgment as to whether things which have been 'surmounted' and are regarded as incredible may not, after all, be possible’[16].

    Thus we notice that a sentiment of uncertainty towards the old and familiar belief is omnipresent and produces a clash when they occur in real life situation, especially when paralleled with our obsession with 'seiz[ing] upon any confirmation about their existence’[17]. We can clearly see that Brontë was conscious of the importance of the realistic dimension in creating uncanny situations.

     

    Our view then matches perfectly with Freud's consideration that the ‘conflict of judgment’ is the result of the writer's creation of an ‘intellectual uncertainty’ within his work. Who does not remember Lucy Snowe qualifying the mysterious apparition of the nun as “romantic rubbish”[18] or Jane Eyre's hesitation to consider the surrealistic events as real or not? Freud sees that the ‘intellectual uncertainty’ depends on the world the writer chooses to put us in. In fact, he notes that:

     

    The imaginative writer has this license among many others, that he can select his world of representation so that it either coincides with the realities we are familiar with or departs from them in what particular he pleases. We accept his ruling in every case.[19]

     

    So, in choosing a surrealistic world as that of fairy tales the reader forgets about the rational and real world and accepts to ‘play the game’ and is no more impressed by the presence of the unreal and supernatural elements. Consequently, the writer can achieve no uncanniness. On the contrary, the writer is more likely to raise in us this sensation if he chooses a more realistic and familiar world, ‘the world of commonly reality’[20]. On the same trend, Freud suggests that the writer has the possibility to increase this sensation by ‘bringing about events which never or very rarely happen in fact’. Such events, I suppose, may take the form of ghostly apparitions and other inexplicable events. For Freud, the incorporation of such unreal and uncommon events within a familiar and real situation would re-question our previously ‘surmounted’ superstitiousness and hence raise a unique sensation of uncanniness.

     

    Freud’s theory displays the geniosity of elaborateness of a framework which re-organizes Gothic elements (i.e: ghostly apparitions, gothic doubles, enclosure and imprisonment, entrapment, and improbable events) in such a way that both the writer and the reader would be able to recognize a pure uncanny feeling. The uncaninness favored by Freud is the one which the writer creates taking into account both the fears and the intelligence of the reader by avoiding excess of mysticism and extravagant exoticism. This kind of uncanninness is well illustrated in Charlotte Brontë’s novels which demonstrates a much more wrought Gothic by her ‘flirts’ with a multitude of modes of writing as sensational and realist.

     

    Indeed, the ‘intellectual uncertainty’ is omnipresent in Jane Eyre and Villette. Though the heroines adopt a contemptuous and humoristic tone, their narration of the unusual experiences melt uncertainty and hesitation in qualifying the events as real and thus managing to create an uncanny perception of reality. In fact, the heroines’ efforts to escape facing the Gothic are in vain, hence my previous assumption that Brontë’s subversion of the Gothic is but a way to confirm its threatening presence. Brontë’s modeling of the Gothic within a familiar space and realist tone of narration achieves to break the reassuring rationality which her heroines strive to maintain. As a result, Gothic and realism are no longer seen as contradictory but they work on the same trend and seem to collaborate in creating an original form of uncanninness. In Jane Eye the intellectual uncertainty is contrasted by her infantile reaction to ghostly apparitions is in the Red room and her mature reaction and realist account of the ghost of Thornfield which do not allow us to doubt it. The heroines’ denials of the unreal, lucid explanations of Rochester and John Bretton and other realist techniques are in fact the source of the uncanniness which marks the novels. As for the narrator and heroine of Villette, Lucy is of a more cold and rational nature, if not disagreeable as Matthew Arnold qualified her. Lucy’s treatment of the Gothic is a mockery of it, as her “real” accounts of the events are unquestionable and render the Gothic more vivid and uncanny. Therefore, the adoption of a realist and mocking tone in treating the Gothic helps to produce a reverse situation by confirming the surreal and re-questioning the real.

     

    As stated before, the uncanny is in constant relation with the familiar. This familiar resonance within unfamiliar occurrences has two foundations: Firstly, the heroines’ past experiences or what they perceive as familiar are in fact Gothic in nature. Undoubtedly, Jane Eyre and Lucy Snowe have many common points: they are both orphans and without prospect and trying to improve their situation and seem to have led a Gothic life. However the problematic of the melting of the Gothic and realist is in the ending Charlotte Brontë chooses: if Jane Eyre succeeds to get rid of her Gothic life and past experiences through a reconstructed and re-defined familiarity and domesticity, Lucy Snowe seems to confirm more the Gothic by an improbable ending which draws a favored re-writing of “romance” and adherence to the uncanny. Secondly, our reading of the domestication of the Gothic raises two possibilities: either it can be a confirmation of the Gothic denying and re-questioning domesticity as in , Villette, or an abomination of the wild uncanny Gothic and thus adhering to the “homely” domestic world like in Jane Eyre. In both cases our identification of realist and fantastic utterances in the novels and re-modeling of the Gothic aims to discover a plausible reading of the insertion of the uncanny into the home.

     

    The first chapter of my dissertation will put us in the context in which the Gothic was remodeled by Charlotte Brontë and the multiple reasons which helped its appearance. This chapter is devided into two sections: the first section called "Formation of domestic Gothic" will try to explore the various influences which favored the appearance of this new form of Gothicism (i.e.: fantastic, domestic, and sensational fictions). In the second section called ‘Unthroned traditional Gothic’ will look for the reasons which pushed Charlotte Brontë to abandon the extravagancy of the traditional Gothic as exigency of publication of the period. These influences and constraints of publication would give us a first glimpse at the realist aspects found in Jane Eyre and Villette and allow a recognition of Gothic generic conventions and other forms of innovation within the works.

     

    The second Chapter of this research gives a close interest to the ‘domestication of the Gothic’ in Charlotte Brontë’s novels. The first section of the chapter called "Enthroned domestic Gothic" will explore the various ways in which Charlotte Brontë adapts the Gothic and domesticate it in order to create a more vivid form of uncanniness. This chapter will look at the various adaptations Brontë brings to the gothic affecting settings, character and other Gothic conventions which render it less exotic but more disturbing form of uncanniness. The second section called “Reality or Gothic as subverted reality” explores how Brontë’s attempt of re-writing the Gothic is in itself an attempt of re-defining the reality of domesticity. This section will deal with multiple techniques Brontë uses to achieve a unique 'uncanny' as she transforms the gothic into a disruption of the domestic realism and the reassuring rationality of the familiar which corresponds to what Freud called "intellectual uncertainty". The aim of this section is to clear up the collaboration of realism with the Gothic.

     

    The third chapter can be seen as a resultant of the innovation of a domestic Gothic discussed in the previous chapter. Its first section called "uncanny domesticity" explores the ways in which the Gothic invades the home, subverts the familiar and defamiliarize domesticity. The second section called “Pro-gothic or pro-domesticity” attempts to find a plausible reading of Charlotte Brontë’s insertion of Gothicism within domestic space. This will demonstrate how her transformation of the homes into 'unhomly' produces two different effects in Jane Eyre and Villette as the first submits to the reality of domesticity and the second adheres more to the Gothic reality.

     

    30-09-2010

     

    [to be continued...]

     

    Notes and references:

     

    [1] ‘Terrorist Novel Writing’, Spirit of the Public Journals for 1797, I (London, 1798), 223.

    [2] Botting, Fred. Gothic. London: Routledge, 1996. 74.

    [3]Collins, Wilkie, and Matthew Sweet( 1860). The Woman in White. London: Penguin, 1974. 13

    [4]Armstrong, Nancy. "The Politics of Domestic Fiction: 1948". In Desire and Domestic Fiction: a Political History of the Novel. New York: Oxford UP, 1987. 177

    [5] Moran, Maureen. Catholic Sensationalism and Victorian Literature. Liverpool: Liverpool Univ., 2007.14.

    [6] Ibid. p.14

    [7]Hoeveler, Diane Long. Gothic Feminism: the Professionalization of Gender from Charlotte Smith to the Brontës. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 1998.188

    [8] Schmitt, Cannon. "The Gothic Romance in the Victorian Period". In A Companion to the Victorian Novel. Eds: Brantlinger, Patrick, and William B. Thesing. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.312

    [9] Hoeveler, Diane Long. Gothic Feminism: the Professionalization of Gender from Charlotte Smith to the Brontës. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 1998.189

    [10] Wolstenholme, Susan. "Charlotte Brontë's Post-Gothic Gothic". In Gothic (re)visions Writing Women as Readers. Albany: State University of New York, 1993.57.

    [11] Freud, Sigmund (1919).“The ‘Uncanny’” [Das Unheimliche]. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , Vol. XVII, trans. James Strachey. London: Hogarth Press, 1955. 217

    [12] Ibid. p.217

    [13] Freud, Sigmund (1919).“The ‘Uncanny’” [Das Unheimliche]. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , Vol. XVII, trans. James Strachey. London: Hogarth Press, 1955. 247.

    [14] Ibid. p.243

    [15] Ibid., p.245.

    [16] Ibid., p.245.

    [17] Ibid., p.248.

    [18] Brontë, Charlotte (1853). Villette. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 2007.128.

    [19] Freud, Sigmund (1919).“The ‘Uncanny’” [Das Unheimliche]. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , Vol. XVII, trans. James Strachey. London: Hogarth Press, 1955. 251.

    [20] Ibid., p.251.

     

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    Watt, James. Contesting the Gothic: Fiction, Genre, and Cultural Conflict, 1764-1832. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999.

    Wein, Toni. British Identities, Heroic Nationalisms, and the Gothic Novel: 1764 - 1824. Basingstoke [u.a.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

    Williams, Anne. Art of Darkness: a Poetics of Gothic. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1995.

    Wolfreys, Julian. "Victorian Gothic". In Teaching the Gothic. Eds: Powell, Anna, and Andrew Smith. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

    Wolstenholme, Susan. "Charlotte Brontë's Post-Gothic Gothic". In Gothic (re)visions Writing Women as Readers. Albany: State University of New York, 1993.

     

    Web bibliography:

     

    Alejo G, Steimberg. "Du gothique au fantastique et à la Gothic Fantasy: Parcours du genre au style." Revue Des Littératures De L’Union Européenne. 2004. Web. 13 June 2010. .

     

    Beattie, Valerie. "The Mystery At Thornfield: Representations Of Madness In 'Jane Eyre.' " Questia Online Library. 2002. Web. 18 May. 2010.

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    Hendershot, Cyndy. “(Re)visioning the Gothic: Jane Campion's the Piano”: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library." Questia Online Library. 2002. Web. 19May.2010. <http://www.questia.com/library/encyclopedia/campion-jane.jsp>.

     

    Jones, Timothy G. "Canniness of the Gothic: Genre as Practice". May 2009. Web. 07 May 2010.

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    Sencindiver, Susan Yi. "Fear and Gothic Spatiality." The Doctoral School in Arts and Aesthetics.2010.Web.13July2010.

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    Sulaiman Alshatti, Aishah. "Appropriations of the Gothic by Romantic-era Women Writers." University of Glasgow. Mar. 2008. Web. 06 Apr. 2010.

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    Wein, Toni. "Gothic Desire In Charlotte Bronte's Villette." Questia Online Library. 2002. Web.06 May 2010.

     
     
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